Although the definite cause of Endometriosis is not known, it often occurs due to a degenerating backflow of the menstrual blood through the oviducts into the pelvic cavity. This leads to a growth of the endometrial cells, which keeps bleeding throughout the periodical flow. With time, the broken tissues start accumulating in the pelvis that can lead to discomfort, acute pain during menstruation, fertility issues and others.
Another possible cause is when minor portions of the abdomen turn into endometrial tissues as they develop from embryonic cells that facilitate them to change their shape and nature. These cells may also affix themselves to a surgical opening after hysterectomy or C-Section operation. Genetic factors in certain cases with eminent traits of endometrial cells also play a role.
The different stage of Endometriosis is categorized into minimal, mild, moderate and severe. The minimal and mild stages comprise of small wounds and endometrial implants on the ovary with swelling in or around the pelvic region. The moderate endometriosis involves deep implants on the ovary and the pelvic lining. The direst stage of endometriosis results in deep implants on pelvic lining and ovaries along with lesions on the oviducts.
Though the pain varies with different individual, pelvic pain is one of the main signs of endometriosis with other subsequent symptoms:
- Painful periods with cramps and heavy outflow.
- Lower abdominal discomfort and back pain before and during menstruation.
- Pain associated with sexual intercourse
- Difficulty in bowel movement
- Exhaustion along with other problems of nausea, constipation.
Pre-operative remedies: Medications like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -ibuprofen is often recommended but is not productive in all cases. Additional hormonal therapy can also provide help controlling the monthly hormonal changes that facilitate tissue growth during endometriosis.
Birth control pills can even minify pain in less severe endometriosis but should be supervised by the doctor. Certain other medications like Danazol, Depo-Provera are taken which causes artificial menopause thereby ceasing the advancement of endometrial cells. However, these have adverse consequences like vaginal dryness, abnormal hair growth, weight gain, depression and others.
Some home remedial methods include therapeutic exercises along with usage of warm heating pads to relax the pelvic muscles and help in reducing the pain and the cramps.
Women suffering from acute pain and trying to conceive can resort to conservative surgery, where the removal of the endometrial tissues is done without any damage to reproductive organs.
This is done through the laparoscopic surgical method, where a laparoscope is projected inside the body through a small incision near the navel to get a better view of the endometrial growth area followed by the excision of it. Though this can be removed using open surgery also, Laparoscopy serves to be a less invasive procedure.
Vitro fertilization is often preferred in case of failure of the Conservative surgery method. In many severe conditions, a total Hysterectomy is proposed where both the ovaries including the cervix and the uterus are removed. This generates incapability of pregnancy forever and should be executed under proper decisions and is considered last alternative.
Endometriosis symptoms can be similar to that of ovarian cysts and pelvic swelling diseases. A transvaginal an abdominal ultrasound can be conducted to gain insight on the matter. Both ultrasounds provide images of the reproductive organs helping the doctor to distinguish between cysts and endometrial growth.
A pelvic exam can be done, where the doctor feels the pelvic region manually for any abnormal growth. Family history on the related issue is also paid heed to while taking any decision. The disease being a common occurrence deals with the serious issue of infertility.
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