Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a surgical procedure which is used to treat coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is narrowing of the coronary arteries which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. This disease is caused by build-up of fatty material within the walls of the arteries. The buildup of fatty material narrows the arteries which limit the supply of the oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles.
A healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to treat the blocked or narrowed arteries to bypass the blocked portion of the coronary artery. Grafts or blood vessels are used for the bypass procedure by taking a vein from the leg or the artery in the chest. One end of this graft is attached above the blocked end and other at the end of the blockage. Blood is then routed around, or bypassed where the blockages go through the new graft to reach the heart muscle. This is called coronary artery bypass surgery.