When You Need Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant?

Involving receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by previously collected bone marrow, Autologous Bone Marrow Transplants are normally given to eliminate cancer in the body. Infusion of new bone marrow through transplant or peripheral blood stem cells so as to replace destroyed bone marrow by chemotherapy of radiation therapy is an essential part of this procedure. Potential candidates for Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant generally have germ cell cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, Amyloidosis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma or certain other types of leukemia.

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant

What is Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant?

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant or rescue is a type of transplant which uses the patient’s own stem cells which were collected in advance only to be returned at a later stage. These are bone marrow cells are meant to be used so as to replace damaged stem cells which have been damaged by high doses of chemotherapy which has been applied to treat underlying diseases.

When You Need Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant?

Autologous transplants are generally used to treat a variety of different blood cancers like osteosarcoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, certain solid tumors, leukemias like lymphoma & myeloma & others. These normally are treatments which allow use of high-dose chemotherapy so as to provide better chances of cure or long-term control of disease. While most patients have single autologous transplant, some others particularly suffering from myeloma or some solid tumors, may need to have two or more sequential autologous transplants over a period of few months.

How are Stem Cells Collected?

Stem cells are collected directly from bloodstream in most cases. A combination of chemotherapy & a growth factor drug called Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) which stimulates growth cells are used to expand number of stem cells in bone marrow which cause them to spill out into blood circulation. Subsequently stem cells can be collected from a vein by passing blood through a special machine known as cell separator in a procedure which is quite similar to dialysis. This machine returns rest of the blood to circulation after separation & collection of stem cells. These stem cells are further processed, frozen & stored until the scheduled time of autologous transplant. This stem cell collection procedure is usually carried out as an outpatient procedure in hospitals.

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

Very high-dose chemotherapy sometimes accompanied by radiotherapy is given in the week leading to autologous transplant. This is called conditioning therapy & is basically meant to destroy the underlying disease for cancer. Subsequently, the stored stem cells are thawed & re-infused through veins back into the patient’s bloodstream in a process which is quite similar to blood transfusion. These stem cells make way into bone marrow from here, get re-established & start producing new blood cells.

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant After-Care

Blood counts dramatically drop in the week following conditioning therapy. Being more at risk of infections & bleeding during this time is normal. Antibiotics & other medications are commonly prescribed so as to help prevent & treat infections during this period. Platelet transfusions are also given in order to reduce risk of bleeding. Red blood cell transfusions are also given when hemoglobin levels are low. Some common side effects of chemotherapy & radiotherapy like mucositis, vomiting, nausea & bowel problems including diarrhea are likely to be experienced. When blood counts begin to rise & patients otherwise feel well, are they allowed discharge from hospital. However, they will need to regularly come to clinic or hospital to check blood counts & progress. This can take a few months for immune system to recover after autologous bone marrow transplant. It would therefore be sensible to take precautions & prevent infection during this time.

Side Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant

Most side effects of autologous bone marrow transplant are generally caused by conditioning therapy & are temporary & reversible. Other long-term side effects of conditioning therapy include fertility problems affecting ability to have babies in future & early onset of menopause at young age. Doctors will discuss these expected side-effects & help patients take steps to reduce or prevent them.

Successful Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant

Success of transplant will however depend upon a number of factors including stage & type of disease, age & general health. Despite advancements in procedure, many people experience relapse of original disease following autologous transplant. Subsequent treatments may include more chemotherapy and/or another autologous transplant or drugs to stimulate immune system so as to fight disease. Generally, it takes between 3 – 6 months to fully recover after autologous transplant. It is important for patients to take physical & emotional care during this period of time.

Bone Marrow Transplant in India

India is an excellent destination to undergo affordable Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant procedure. IndianMedTrip is associated with top surgeons & transplant hospitals so as to give you high quality low cost treatments options for osteosarcoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, certain solid tumors, leukemias like lymphoma & myeloma & others. Dedicatedly focused IndianMedTrip services include a warm reception, comfortable travel, outstanding selection of healthcare facilities, relaxing retreats for recuperation & many more facilities associated with your medical travel.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/  

Source: https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/when-you-need-autologous-bone-marrow-transplant/

What is Hip Stabilization Procedure

Hip is a vital ball-and-socket type of joint. Primary function of this joint is to manage and support weight of upper body. Any severe injury or fracture may deteriorate the strong hip joint and result in several complications. In such instances, hip stabilization procedures can prove to be extremely beneficial. Hip stabilization techniques can be implemented efficiently to realign the broken hip bone and restore complete hip movement.  Hip Stabilization Procedure

Hip Stabilization Procedures

Hip stabilization procedure is simply a solution for repairing damaged hip joint. The approach may vary depending on patient’s precise health condition and requirement. The following are the major three categories of hip stabilization procedures.

Physical Therapy – At first, surgeons may suggest non-surgical methods as they can provide a great relief to a patient suffering from intense hip joint pain. A regular physical therapy regimen along with painkillers is considered to be primary hip stabilization treatment. An appropriate exercise plan can relieve pressure and pain from hip muscles and nearby tissues.

Surgical Procedures – Orthopedic surgeons may advise a surgical procedure such as a hip replacement procedure and replace the impaired hip joint with an artificial prosthesis. Recovery following such surgery may be painful and take up to 4 to 10 weeks of time interval. However, surgeons will provide medicines and drugs to help patients get over the discomfort. They may require performing light exercises and physiotherapy to heal at a faster pace.

Minimally Invasive Alternatives – Also called as ‘hip resurfacing arthroplasty’, hip resurfacing procedure is a relatively newer approach in the field of orthopedic care. Unlike a traditional hip replacement, it aims at reshaping and capping the damaged femoral bone around hip joint with a metal covering. Whereas, surgeons removes the entire socket and replace it with a smooth metal shell similar to total hip replacement. This minimally invasive surgery can be performed for younger patients who wish to continue high impact sports after a full recovery. It takes around three weeks for recovery and patients can return back to sports and high impact activities with six months of surgery.

Benefits of Hip Stabilization Procedures

The following points illustrate the major benefits of undergoing a hip stabilization procedure.

Walking Pattern – Unstable hip may cause walking problems and restrict a person from performing basic routine tasks. Hip stabilization procedure can help improve patient’s mobility.

Range of Motion – It can significantly improve patient’s range of motion by providing rejuvenating muscles strength around the hip joint.

Improved Quality of Life – If patients follow doctor’s instructions properly, then the results following hip stabilization procedure can last a lifetime and significantly maximize patient’s quality of life.

Hip Stabilization Procedure in India at Affordable Cost

Indian medical tourism has emerged as the best option for a large number of overseas patients seeking quality hip stabilization procedures due to the following reasons.
Doctors – Patients can choose from a vast pool of well-experienced orthopedic surgeons in India.

Cost – International patients can easily get low-cost hip stabilization procedure in India at any prime hospital.

Recovery – Indian country is blessed with a soothing environment which can aid a faster recovery.

Indian country is, therefore, an ultimate stop for international patients willing to get a successful hip stabilization procedure.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com  & https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/


Glioblastoma Brain Tumors: Treatment, Signs & Symptoms

Glioblastoma brain tumors are basically high-grade astrocytomas & which are also known as glioblastoma multiforme or GBM in short. Glioblastoma brain tumors are cancerous brain tumors which most frequently occur in middle-aged & older adults. GBM are a type of glioma & which typically originate in connective cells of brain known as glial. Glial cells are star-shaped cells & are termed astrocytes. Astrocytes are found to occur throughout brain & spine; so also GBM tumors can occur in a wide variety of locations all around the central nervous system. However, most commonly GBM develop in central hemispheres, where they also infiltrate surrounding brain tissues & therefore make it difficult to surgically remove the tumor. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors which are found in adults.

Signs & Symptoms of Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Clinical history of GBM patients is usually short, less than 3 months in more than 50 percent of the cases. Common signs & symptoms of GBM include the following.

Signs and Symptoms of Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

  • Headaches
  • Seizures
  • Slow progressive neurological deficit usually includes motor weakness
  • Generalized symptoms include increase in intracranial pressure causing cognitive impairment, headaches, nausea & vomiting

Neurologic signs & symptoms may either be general or focal & reflecting the location of the tumor.

  • General symptoms include slowing of cognitive function, personality changes, headaches, nausea & vomiting
  • Focal signs & symptoms include visual loss, sensory loss, aphasia, hemiparesis & others

Etiology of Glioblastoma brain tumors is unknown in most cases. Suggested causes of brain tumor however include the following.

  • Race
  • Genetic Factors
  • Head Injuries
  • N-Nitroso Compounds
  • Occupational Hazards
  • Electromagnetic Field Exposure (inconclusive)
  • Cell Phone Use (controversial)

Also Read: Brain Tumor Surgery Recovery & Aftercare 

Diagnosing Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

There are no specific laboratory tests which can help diagnose GBM tumors. However, tumor genetics are quite useful in predicting possible response to adjuvant therapy. Nevertheless, imaging examinations of brain are essential for making proper diagnosis. Some of these include the following.

Diagnosing Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

  • Computed Tomography – CT Scans
  • MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging, with or without contrast
  • Positron Emission Tomography – PT Scans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Cerebral Angiography (not necessarily)

Other diagnostic measures which may also be considered include the following

  • Electroencephalography – This may show suggestive findings while specific GBM findings may not be observed
  • Lumbar Puncture – This is for contraindication & is occasionally required for ruling out Lymphoma
  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis may not significantly facilitate specific diagnosis of GBM tumors

However, in most cases of GBM tumors, complete staging is neither possible nor practical. GBM tumors do not have any clearly defined margins & generally tend to invade locally while spreading along white matter pathways & creating appearance of multiple glioblastoma brain tumors or multicentric gliomas upon imaging studies.

Also Read: Meningioma Brain Tumors

Treatment for Glioblastoma Brain Tumor

Presently, there is no treatment which is curative for glioblastoma brain tumors. However, standard treatments consist of the following.

  • Maximal surgical resection along with radiotherapy & concomitant & adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide
  • Less aggressive therapy is sometimes considered for patients older than 70 years by using temozolomide or radiation alone

Key points regarding radiotherapy for Glioblastoma brain tumors include the following.

  • Application of radiotherapy along with surgery increases survival
  • Response of GBM to radiotherapy varies
  • Interstitial Brachytherapy for GBM is limitedly useful & rarely used
  • Radiosensitizers like the new chemotherapeutic agents, antiangiogenic agents & targeted molecular agents can increase therapeutic effect of radiotherapy.
  • Application of radiotherapy for recurrent GBM is controversial

Optimal chemotherapeutic regimen for GBM is not yet clearly defined, but adjuvant chemotherapy is found to yield significant benefits of survival in more than 25 percent of the patients.

Since glioblastoma brain tumors cannot be surgically cured, goals of surgical intervention remain as follows.

  • Establishing a pathologic diagnosis
  • Relieving any mass effect
  • Achieving gross total resection so as to facilitate adjuvant therapy whenever possible
  • Extent of surgery has shown in a number of studies to affect the survival of GBM patients. Surgical options however include the following.
    • Gross Total Resection for better survival
    • Subtotal Resection

Stereotactic biopsy is followed by radiation therapy in some cases like for patients whose GBM is located in eloquent areas of the brain, patients in poor medical condition who cannot afford to undergo general anesthesia & for patients whose GBM tumors have minimal mass effect.

Also Read: Different Types of Brain Tumor Surgery

Affordable Treatment for Glioblastoma Brain Tumor in India

India is in fact one of the best places on earth for international patients to avail affordable treatment for glioblastoma brain tumor. Indian healthcare sector comprises of some of the best neurosurgeons & radiologists alongside numerous nationally & internationally accredited specialty & multispecialty hospital facilities which provide low cost medical procedures when compared to availability in other countries. IndianMedTrip is a globally reputed one-stop healthcare tourism company which is associated with top neurosurgeons & multispecialty hospital facilities in order to provide excellent quality of medical procedures including treatments for glioblastoma brain tumors to people from all around the world at reasonable costs.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/

Source: https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/glioblastoma-brain-tumors-treatment-signs-symptoms/




Treatment & Surgical Procedures for Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are basically gnarled & enlarged veins. While any vein may be likely to become varicose, most commonly affected veins which become varicose are those in legs & feet. This is generally because standing & walking upright increase pressure in veins located in lower body. Spider veins, for many people are a common & mild variation of varicose veins & are simply a cosmetic concern. However, for many other people varicose veins cause discomfort & aching pain. Quite often, varicose veins also lead to more serious problems. Apart from these varicose veins also signal higher risk of circulatory problems. Treatments of varicose veins involve a number of self-care measures & surgical procedures by surgeons so as to close or remove veins.

Varicose Veins

Signs & Symptoms of Varicose Veins

Although varicose veins do not cause any pain, they display many signs & symptoms which are listed below.

  • Veins appear blue or dark purple in color.
  • Veins look bulging & twisted & often like cords on legs.
  • Heavy or achy feeling in legs.
  • Muscle cramping, throbbing, burning & swelling in legs.
  • Pain is worse after standing or sitting for a long time.
  • Itching sensation around one or more veins.
  • Bleeding from varicose veins.
  • Red discoloration of skin with painful cord in vein.
  • Color changes & hardening of vein.
  • Inflammation of skin or skin ulcers near ankle which denotes that the patient is suffering from a serious type of vascular disease which requires medical attention.

Spider veins are quite similar to varicose veins, but are smaller. Moreover, spider veins are located closer to skin’s surface & are most often red or blue in color. Spider veins occur on legs, but are also at times found on face. Apart from varying in size, they often look like a spider’s web.

Causes of Varicose Veins

While arteries carry blood from heart to all tissues of the body, veins return this blood from tissues to the heart as circulation. Veins in legs must therefore work against gravity so as to fulfill returning blood to heart. Muscle contraction within lower legs act like pumps & elastic walls of veins help blood return to heart. Tiny valves within veins eventually open as blood flows towards heart & subsequently close so as to stop blood flowing backward into legs.

Common Causes of Varicose Veins

  • Age – Veins lose elasticity & eventually stretch as people get older. Valves within veins also become weak & may therefore allow blood moving towards heart to flow backwards. Blood therefore pools in veins which enlarge & become varicose. Quite often these veins appear blue as they contain deoxygenated blood which is stuck up in the process of being re-circulated through the lungs.
  • Pregnancy – Quite a few pregnant women also develop varicose veins. Pregnancy normally increases the volume of blood within the body, while decreasing the flow of blood from legs to the pelvic region. This change in circulation pattern of blood is designed to support the fetus which is growing. However, it can produce an unfortunate condition resulting in enlarged veins within legs of pregnant women. Varicose veins may therefore surface for the first time or worsen during late pregnancy due to the uterus exerting greater pressure on veins within legs. Apart from this, changes in levels of hormones during pregnancy may also play a part in developing varicose veins which generally improve without any medical treatment in 3 – 12 months time after the woman has given birth to the child.

Diagnosis of Varicose Veins

When self-care like exercise & elevating legs or wearing compression stockings do not help to ease pain of varicose veins, consulting a doctor may help patients prevent further deterioration. It is time to see a doctor when patients are concerned & all self-care measures have not been able to stop this condition from getting worse.

  • Doctors will do a physical examination so as to diagnose varicose veins. This will include looking at legs while the patient is standing so as to check for swelling. Doctors may also ask patients to describe pain & aching in their legs.
  • Patients may also need to undergo an ultrasound test so as to see if valves in veins of legs are functioning normally or if there is any evidence of blood clots. This is a noninvasive test where the lab technician runs a transducer, which is a small hand-held device about the size of a soap-bar, against the patient’s skin over the area where the patient needs to be examined. This transducer transmits images of veins in legs to a monitor which helps technicians & doctors understand the situation.

Treatments for Varicose Veins

The good news is that treatment for varicose veins does not require any hospital stay or lengthy & uncomfortable recovery. Less invasive procedures can generally be employed as treatment for varicose veins on an outpatient basis.

  • Self-Care – These include exercising, elevating legs, losing weight, not wearing tight clothes & avoiding sitting or standing for long periods of time. This can often relieve pain & prevent varicose veins from further worsening.
  • Compression Stockings – Wearing compression stockings throughout the day is most often the first approach for varicose veins before moving on to other types of treatment. Compression stockings steadily squeeze legs & help blood circulate more efficiently within veins & leg muscles. Amount of compression however varies according to the type & brand. Compression stockings are available at many pharmacies & medical supply stores. Prescription-strength stockings are also available at most of these stores.

Treatments for Severe Varicose Veins

Patients who do not respond to compression stockings or self-care or those whose varicose veins conditions are more severe are suggested by doctors to undergo one of the following additional treatments.

  • Sclerotherapy – This is a procedure where doctors inject small & medium sized varicose veins with a solution meant to scar & close these veins. Treated varicose veins should fade after this within a few weeks time. Sometimes, the same vein may however be needed to be injected more than once. Sclerotherapy is generally effective if it is performed correctly. Moreover, sclerotherapy does not require administration of anesthesia & can be done at a clinic.
  • Foam Sclerotherapy for Large Veins – Injecting large veins with foam solution is also a possible treatment which can close veins & effectively seal them. However, this is a newer technique which is now practiced.
  • Laser Surgeries for Varicose Veins – Surgeons are now using another new technology which involves laser treatments so as to close smaller spider veins & varicose veins. Strong bursts of light are targeted onto veins through lasers which make veins fade slowly & disappear. However, no needles or incisions are used for this purpose.
  • Catheter Assisted Procedures Using Radiofrequency or Laser Energy – Surgeons insert a thin tube called catheter into the enlarged vein in this procedure. The tip of the catheter is heated using either laser energy or radiofrequency. When the catheter is pulled out, heat at the tip destroys the vein by causing it to collapse & seal shut at the same time. This procedure however, is a preferred treatment for large varicose veins.
  • High Ligation & Vein Stripping – This treatment procedure involves tying off the vein before it joins the deep vein. The vein is also subsequently removed through a small incision. High ligation & vein stripping is an outpatient procedure for most people. However, removal of vein does not adversely affect circulation in legs since veins located deeper inside leg take care of large volumes of blood.
  • Ambulatory Phlebectomy – Surgeons remove small varicose veins through a series of tiny punctures made in skin for this purpose. Parts of leg which will be pricked during treatment are generally numbed for this outpatient procedure. Scarring also is normally minimal following ambulatory phlebectomy.
  • Endoscopic Vein Surgery – This operation is only done in advanced cases of varicose veins involving leg ulcers. Normally performed when all other techniques have failed, surgeons during this procedure use a thin video camera which is inserted in leg so as to visualize & close varicose veins. These varicose veins are then removed through small incisions. Endoscopic Surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure.

Recovery from Varicose Veins Treatment

Although it is hard to believe, veins which are essential to body’s circulatory system can turn into varicose veins. Since superficial veins are closer to surface of skin & not a necessary part of blood circulation can be effectively treated without harming the systems of the body. Moreover, improvements can be impressive when they are treated while they are still small. While most mild cases require only about two treatment sessions, moderate varicose veins may need 3 – 4 treatment sessions. Patients may feel some stinging at the injection site for about an hour following varicose veins treatment & will be up & back on their feet again the next day. However, they will need to wear full pants since bruising can last for up to 2 weeks of time.

Varicose Veins Risk Factors

Following factors increase risk of developing varicose veins.

  • Age – Risk of developing varicose veins increases as people age. Aging normally causes wear & tear on valves in veins which help in regulating blood flow. This wear & tear causes valves to allow some blood to flow back into veins where it collects instead of flowing upwards to the heart.
  • Gender – Women are found to be more likely to develop varicose veins. Premenstruation, hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause are also risk factors as female hormones have a tendency to relax vein walls. Taking birth control pills or undergoing hormone replacement therapy might also increase risk of developing varicose veins.
  • Obesity – Being overweight adds extra pressure on veins & especially on veins within legs.
  • Family History – There is a greater chance of a person developing this condition when other members of his family are having varicose veins.
  • Sitting or Standing for Long Periods of Time – Staying in the same position for long periods of time does not allow proper blood circulation.

Complications of Varicose Veins

Although rare, complications of varicose veins include the following.

  • Ulcers – Extremely painful ulcers can form on skin nearby varicose veins, especially near ankles. These ulcers are generally caused by long-term fluid buildup within these tissues that is caused by increase in blood pressure within the affected veins. A discolored spot on skin is usually first formed before appearance of an ulcer. Varicose veins patients must therefore immediately see a doctor when this complication develops.
  • Blood Clots – Sometimes, veins which are deep within legs become enlarged. Affected leg may also considerably swell in such cases. Sudden leg swelling therefore warrants urgent medical attention since it may also indicate a blood clot & which is a medical condition known as thrombophlebitis.
  • Bleeding – Veins located close to surface of skin may also occasionally burst. While it usually causes only minor bleeding, this may warrant medical attention as there is high risk that it may happen again.

Quite a few people progress from having no symptoms to development of varicose veins & then further on to problems like leg swelling & finally to ulcers which are caused by stagnant blood flow.

  • Small number of such cases may have deep vein clots which developed during the progression & which could be the cause of signs & symptoms; but this is not so in most cases.
  • More severe problems like skin ulcers are therefore very difficult to effectively prevent. These ulcers are also very difficult to cure once they occur.
  • Quite often even after elimination, these ulcers ten to recur.

Blood clots within deeper veins have the potential to travel through blood stream & eventually lodge inside lungs. This condition is called pulmonary embolism. However, pulmonary embolism does not occur from development of varicose veins.

  • Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition as blood clot can interrupt circulation of blood in the body.
  • Common pulmonary embolism symptoms include pain in chest & shortness of breath.

Varicose Veins Preventive Measures

Changing genes is beyond human control, but patients can definitely take certain preventive measures so as to avoid developing varicose veins. These include regular exercise, keeping weight under control, eating a healthy high-fiber diet & trying to stick to loose, & comfortable clothing as far as possible. However, individuals who are genetically inclined to develop varicose veins may still develop this condition despite all efforts. Wearing Thromboembolism-deterrent (TED) stockings are the best nonsurgical treatment method for varicose veins. These effectively prevent breakdown of skin & worsening of varicosities. Most patients also experience less tiredness & decreased swelling in feet at the end of the day by using TED stockings.

Varicose Veins Treatment Outcome

Varicose veins will not go away without treatment. They will require treatments like ligation, sclerotherapy & stripping. Quite often these veins may even seem more prominent in warm weather. Nevertheless, once they are here, they will not fade away on their own. Prevention, in fact is the key & patients must begin modifications in lifestyle which are outlined in self-care instructions. These will improve chances of preventing newer varicose veins from forming. Moreover, in some cases varicose veins may only be just one stage in the continuum of chronic poor functioning of veins.

Varicose Veins Treatment in India

India is a globally favorite medical tourism destination providing a wide spectrum of affordable healthcare solutions including treatment for varicose veins for patients from all around the world. Doctors & surgeons serving the healthcare industry are some of the best & most renowned within the medical fraternity. Most hospitals in the country are internationally accredited & equipped with the latest technology so as to provide high quality of diagnosis, treatment & surgical interventions. IndianMedTrip is highly acclaimed healthcare tourism in South Asia which is closely associated with highly ranked hospital facilities within the region. Offering a wide spectrum of low cost healthcare solution, IndianMedTrip experts will also be delighted to combine an exotic recuperative vacation along with the varicose veins treatment so as to make your healthcare travel a memorable experience.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com & https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/  

Source:  https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/treatment-surgical-procedures-for-varicose-veins/



Laparoscopic Surgery

It is impossible to credit any one individual for pioneering the laparoscopic approach to surgery. First laparoscopic operation in humans was performed in 1910. Ensuing several decades further refined the laparoscopic approach. Technological innovations which provided means to project magnified views of operating field on a monitor immensely facilitated performance of complex laparoscopic procedures. Prior to this before 1990, laparoscopy was mainly utilized for purposes of diagnosis & performing simple gynecologic procedures like tubal ligation.

Laparoscopic Surgery

What is Laparoscopic Surgery?

Also referred as Minimally Invasive Surgery, laparoscopic surgery describes performance of a surgical procedure with assistance of a video camera & many thin surgical instruments. During laparoscopic surgical procedure small sized incisions of a maximum of 0.5 inch are made & plastic tubes called ports are inserted through these openings. Camera & instruments are subsequently introduced through these ports which allow access inside towards site of operation. Camera thereby transmits image of organs inside the body on a television monitor. Whereas a surgeon is not able to directly see the surgical site like through large traditional incisions, but the video camera placed inside acts as surgeon’s eyes in laparoscopic surgery, as he uses the images sent from video camera positioned inside patient’s body.

Benefits of Laparoscopic Surgery

Common benefits of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery procedures include –

  • Lesser post operative discomfort as incisions are much smaller.
  • Faster recovery time.
  • Shorter stay in hospital.
  • Faster return to normal activities.
  • Smaller incisions therefore much smaller scars.
  • Less internal scarring during procedures when compared to traditional open surgeries.

Advanced Hand Access Devices for Laparoscopic Surgery

Human hand performs efficiently during traditional surgeries which are difficult to reproduce using traditional laparoscopic instruments. This loss of ability to place hand inside the body in laparoscopic surgery had limited use of laparoscopy for complex surgeries. There is a breakthrough now. Advanced laparoscopic surgeries with new hand access laparoscopic devices allow surgeons allow surgeons equal access during laparoscopic surgery which was previously only possible during open surgery. Hand assisted device is a new addition to minimal access surgery which literally allows the surgeon to feel organs inside the body. Using this potential many surgical operations from simple to extremely complicated are greatly facilitated by introduction of hand in the laparoscopic arena. Purposefully designed to assist surgeons in complex intra-abdominal operations, hand assisted laparoscopic devices have stimulated several vascular surgeons around the world to reintroduce laparoscopy into repair of complex & challenging abdominal procedures including splenectomy, nephrectomy & colorectal surgeries.

Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery

Computer assisted robotic systems like Da Vinci expand surgeon’s capability to perform complex operations within the body in a less invasive laparoscopic surgical procedure. While allowing for greater precision & better visualization when compared to traditional laparoscopic surgical procedures, operations through such computer controlled robotic systems are performed with no direct mechanical control between the patient & surgeon. Remaining remote from the patient, the surgeon operates from a few feet distance seated at a computer console soaking in a 3-D view of the surgical site. Surgeons operate a couple of masters which are quite similar to joysticks which effectively control the two mechanical arms on robot. These mechanical arms are fitted with specialized instruments performing hand-like movements which carry surgery through tiny incisions in patient’s body. Approximately three 0.5 inch incisions are made through which video camera & robotic arms with highly specialized instruments are inserted. While video camera provides high magnification, high resolution & depth perception images, robotic arms perform necessary surgery as directed by the surgeon at the computer console.

Da Vinci System for Pancreas, Liver & Bile Duct Laparoscopic Surgery

Da Vinci Robotic System is one of the best in the world for abdominal procedures like pancreas, bile duct & liver surgery. Experience suggests this robotic system is excellent on following procedures.

  • Distal Pancreatectomy
  • Bile Duct Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction of gastrointestinal tract after Whipple operation
  • Hepaticojejunostomy (suturing obstructive bile duct to intestine so as to provide drainage to blocked bile duct by tumor or other causes)
  • Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
  • Pancreaticojejunostomy & Peustow procedures (suturing jejunum to pancreatic duct so as to provide drainage of pancreatic juice into intestine in patients with obstruction of pancreatic duct)

Laparoscopic Surgery in India

India is one of the most favorite global destinations for affordable laparoscopic surgery procedures including advanced robotic surgery like da Vinci. Most Indian surgeons are adept in handling a variety of operations through complex laparoscopic systems. IndianMedTrip is associated with the best internationally accredited hospitals & top surgeons who are some of the most renowned names in the world. IndianMedTrip personalized services will ensure that you avail high quality of treatments at low costs. Moreover, every requirement of international patients will be attended in detail including assistance for medical visas, choice of hospital & surgeons, warm welcome at airport, transportation, accommodation, appointments & check-in at hospital, treatment, aftercare & successful farewell post surgery.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com & https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/
Call or WhatsApp: +91-8600855554  

Source: https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/laparoscopic-surgery-and-its-growing-importance/

What Does Lyme disease Look Like?

Lyme disease is a health condition which occurs due to ticks carrying bacteria. There are mainly four types of bacteria responsible for the development of this disease namely – Borrelia mayonii, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Borrelia garinii bacteria. Lyme disease is a highly treatable condition if caught in its early stage. However, it is not easy to identify the signs of this disease easily as the ticks are usually small and it becomes tough to spot them even when they are filled with blood. Such ticks are most commonly found in grassy area or wooded region. Therefore, people who live near grassy area are more likely to get bitten by an infected tick & acquire Lyme disease.


Warning Signs & Symptoms of Lyme disease

Signs & symptoms of Lyme disease may vary depending on its severity. The following list elaborates some early warning signs & symptoms of Lyme disease.

Rash – Most common sign of Lyme disease is a circular reddish rash called as ‘erythema migrans’ which appears like a bull’s eye. It may expand slowly and deteriorate patient’s condition.
Flu-Like Signs – Patients may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, severe body aches, headache, and extreme tiredness.
The enumerated list exhibits the symptoms which a patient might face in an advanced stage of Lyme disease.

  • Joint pain
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Eye inflammation
  • Liver inflammation (hepatitis)

Lyme disease may result in serious health conditions if not treated timely. Therefore, patients must immediately contact an experienced doctor on observing the above-mentioned symptoms.

Diagnosing Lyme disease

At first, doctors may ask the patients to show their medical history reports to understand their exact health condition. Respective surgeons may order given diagnostic tests to determine the presence of Lyme disease.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test – This test involves taking a sample of patient’s blood & checking for an antigen or antibody in a medical laboratory.
Western Blot Test – Western blot is normally a follow-up diagnostic test which is performed when the outcome of ELISA test is positive. It can clearly identify the type of antibody present in patient’s blood sample & confirm the diagnosis.

Lyme disease Treatment Options

Lyme disease can be efficiently treated with the help of following treatment options.

Oral Antibiotics – Oral antibiotics medications are mostly recommended to patients during early stage of Lyme disease. Oral antibiotics course may last up to 21 days. Surgeons may advise doxycycline drugs to children over the age category of 8 years. Whereas, amoxicillin & cefuroxime drugs are recommended to adults especially breastfeeding women.

Intravenous Antibiotics – Doctors may recommend intravenous antibiotics for persisting or chronic condition of Lyme disease. Intravenous antibiotic treatment is highly beneficial in eliminating the infection. However, it may require some time for a patient to recover completely.

Preventive Measures for Lyme disease

Unfortunately, there is no vaccination available for Lyme disease at present. However, this disease can be prevented by following the below measures strictly.

Appropriate Clothing – People who live near grassy area should try to wear full-sleeved clothes to minimize the risk of tick-bite. Wearing light-colored clothes can also help to spot any ticks.

Using Insect Repellents – Insect repellent creams or lotion on exposed body area can significantly help reduce the possibility of getting Lyme disease.

Skin Inspection – People living in woody area should inspect the skin of their children as well as other family members on a daily basis. It will definitely ensure a good health & prevent them from Lyme disease.

Cleaning The Yard – One must clean the yard regularly & keep the woodpiles in sunlight.

Checking for The Signs – It would be wrong to say that one cannot get Lyme disease twice. Therefore, everyone must keep a track of their skin’s health and constantly check out for early symptoms of this disease like redness or swelling.

In addition to this, people who suspect a tick bite must seek a prompt treatment. These simple yet powerful steps can help prevent Lyme disease to a greater extent.

Avail Best Lyme disease Treatment with IndianMedTrip

IndianMedTrip is one of the excellent medical care facilitators in Indian country. Healthcare consultants at IndianMedTrip are closely associated with top Indian doctors & well-equipped healthcare centers in India. Patients seeking a quality Lyme disease treatment in India may heavily rely on IndianMedTrip as they take care of everything during medical journey of international patients. They make sure that patients get best accommodation, food, and a high-quality medical treatment under the guidance of a well-experienced doctor in India. Lyme disease treatment cost in western countries like Norway or Australia is quite high. IndianMedTrip aims at providing cost-effective Lyme disease treatment in India without compromising on its quality. International patients can contact IndianMedTrip to ensure best beneficial outcomes following their Lyme disease treatment in India.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com & https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/
Call or WhatsApp: +91-8600855554   

Source: https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/what-does-lyme-disease-look-like/

What is Sickle Cell Disease?

Sickle Cell Disease, SCD or Sickle Cell Anemia is a form of inherited anemic condition where healthy red blood cells are not enough to carry adequate amounts of oxygen to various parts of the body. Normal red blood cells are round & flexible so as to easily move through blood vessels. Red blood cells in SCD become sticky & rigid & shape like crescent moon or sickles. These irregularly shaped red blood cells often get stuck within small blood vessels & can effectively slow or block blood flow & oxygen which is necessary to many parts of the body. For most people there is no cure for SCD. However, treatment options can often relieve pain & help prevent development of further problems generally associated with SCD.

Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment

Signs & Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia

Signs & symptoms of SCD generally do not appear until the time infant is 4 months or older. Common signs & symptoms of SCD include –

  • Anemia – Sickle cells are typically fragile & break apart very easily & die leaving patients without sufficient supply of red blood cells. Red blood cells generally live for about 120 days before perishing & therefore are constantly required to be replaced. However, sickle cells normally die after an average life-span of less than 20 days resulting in a lasting shortage of red blood cells & thereby causing anemia. Absence of sufficient red blood cells in blood circulation deprives body of oxygen which is needed to feel energized & will subsequently cause fatigue.
  • Episodes of Pain – Periodic episodes of pain in SCD are called crisis & are a major symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain eventually develops when sickle-shaped red blood cells block flow of blood through tiny blood vessels of joints, abdomen & chest. Pain in SCD is also found to occur within bones. Pain may also however vary in intensity & last from few hours to weeks. While some SCD patients experience fewer episodes of pain, many others experience 12 or more crisis every year. In case SCD crisis is severe, patients may also need to be hospitalized.
  • Hand-Foot Syndrome – Swollen hands & feet of SCD patients may be the first sign of this disease in infants. These swellings are generally due to blocking of blood flow to hands & feet caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells.
  • Delayed Growth – Since red blood cells provide body with nutrients & oxygen needed for growth, shortage of red blood cells will therefore slow growth in babies & children & often delay puberty among teenagers.
  • Frequent Infections – Sickle cells can often damage spleen which is an organ fighting infection in the human body. SCD therefore makes people more vulnerable to developing infections. However, doctors commonly give vaccinations & antibiotics to infants & children with SCD so as to prevent developing potentially life-threatening infections like pneumonia.
  • Problems with Vision – Some people with SCD also experience problems with vision since tiny blood vessels supplying blood to eyes may get plugged with sickle cells. This can also eventually cause damage to retina which is the part of eye involved in processing visual images.

Reasons to Seek Emergency Medical Care

Though SCD is usually diagnosed in infancy, seek emergency medical care when children develop any of these following problems.

  • Swellings in hands and/or feet.
  • Unexplained episodes of severe pain like pain in joints, bones, chest & abdomen.
  • Swelling in abdomen, especially if areas are tender to touch.
  • Fever can sometimes be the first sign of infection & people with SCD have increased risk of infection.
  • Pale nail beds or pale skin.
  • Yellow tint to whites of eyes or to skin.
  • Signs & symptoms of stroke in SCD include one-sided paralysis or weakness in legs, arms or face, confusion, trouble talking or walking, unexplained numbness or sudden vision problems or severe headache.

Causes of Sickle Cell Disease

SCD is caused by mutation in gene which commands the body to make hemoglobin which gives blood the red color. Hemoglobin in fact slows red blood cells to carry oxygen from lungs to all parts of the body. Abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become sticky, rigid & misshapen in patients suffering from SCD. Sickle cell gene is passed from one generation to another in a pattern known as autosomal recessive inheritance which means that both mother & father must pass on defective forms of genes for the child to be affected. The child will not have any SCD traits in case only one parent passes the sickle cell gene. With only one defective form of gene & one normal hemoglobin gene, resulting progeny with sickle cell trait will make both sickle cell hemoglobin & normal hemoglobin. However, their blood will contain some sickle cells but they will generally not experience any symptoms. Nevertheless, they will be carriers of SCD & can pass defective gene to their children.

With every pregnancy couples with sickle cell traits have –

  • 25% chances of having unaffected children with normal hemoglobin.
  • 50% chances of having children who are also carriers like them.
  • 25% chances of having children with sickle cell disease.

Sickle Cell Anemia Initial Consultation

Usually diagnosed through genetic screening tests done when babies are born, SCD results are normally given to a pediatrician or family doctor. Once SCD is diagnosed, patients are referred to hematologists who are doctors specializing in blood disorders or to a pediatric hematologist. Since these appointments can be brief, it would be ideal to be well prepared to cover a lot of ground in a short period of time.

Consultation with Pediatric Hematologist

  • Write Down Symptoms Noticed – Including any which may seem unrelated to SCD for which this appointment is scheduled.
  • Bring Along a Family Member or Friend – Quite often it would be difficult to remember entire information collected during initial appointment. Another person accompanying you will help remember anything you have missed or forgotten.
  • Questions to Ask Doctors – Since time with doctors is limited it would be helpful to prepare a list of questions. Do not hesitate to ask any number of additional questions you have in mind. Some basic questions relating to SCD include the following.
    • What is the most likely cause of my child displaying these symptoms?
    • Could there be any other possible causes?
    • What types of tests are required in this case?
    • What are the available treatment options & which one do you recommend?
    • What side effects are common with these treatments?
    • Do we have any alternatives to the primary approach you have suggested?
    • What is the prognosis in this case?
    • Will there be any restrictions concerning diet or activity?
    • Can you provide me any brochures or printed material that I can take with me to gain complete information?
    • Which websites would you recommend I refer to?

Expect Doctors to Ask You the Following Questions

Doctors are most likely to ask you a number of questions. So be prepared to answer them & reserve some time to go over points that you feel like spending more time on.

  • What point of time did you first notice these symptoms?
  • Have these symptoms been occasional or continuous?
  • What seems to improve these symptoms?
  • What is it that seems to worsen these symptoms?
  • Does anyone in your family have sickle cell disease?
  • Did anyone ever tell you that you have sickle cell anemia trait?

Tests & Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Disease

Blood test can check for hemoglobin S which is the defective type of hemoglobin underlying SCD. In some countries this blood test is also part of the routine newborn screening done in hospitals. However, older children & adults can also be tested for this. Samples for this test in adults are drawn from a vein in arm. Blood sample for this test in babies & young children is usually collected from a finger or heels. These samples are subsequently sent to a laboratory to screen for hemoglobin S. There is no sickle cell gene present for the person in case the screening test is negative. In case the screening test is positive, further tests are required so as to determine whether one or two sickle cell genes are present. People having one gene indicate sickle cell trait & only have a fairly small percentage of hemoglobin S in blood. But people with two genes indicate SCD & have much larger percentage of defective hemoglobin.

Additional Tests for SCD

Sample of blood is subsequently examined under microscope so as to check for larger number of sickle cells to confirm diagnosis as this is a marker of SCD. In case the patient has SCD, blood tests are also conducted to check for anemia or low red blood count will be performed. Doctors may also suggest additional tests to be conducted so as to check for possible complications resulting from SCD. Patients carrying sickle cell gene or their parents are quite often referred to a genetic counselor who is an expert in genetic diseases.

Tests Detecting Sickle Cell Genes Prior to Birth

SCD can be effectively diagnosed in unborn babies by sampling amniotic fluid surrounding the baby in mother’s womb in order to look for sickle cell genes. In case the mother or the father has been diagnosed with SCD or sickle cell trait, it would be proper for them to check with the doctor so as to consider this screening test. Also ask for referral to a genetic counselor in order to correctly understand risk to the baby in such situations.

Treatment & Medications for Sickle Cell Disease

BMT or Bone Marrow Transplant is the only potential cure for SCD. However, finding a suitable donor is difficult & this procedure poses serious risks including possibility of death. Treatment for SCD is basically aimed at avoiding crisis alongside relieving symptoms & prevention of complications. SCD patients will have to make regular visits to doctors in order to monitor health & check red blood cell count. SCD treatments also include medications which are generally meant to reduce pain & prevent complications, blood transfusion & supplementing oxygen & bone marrow transplant.

Medications for Sickle Cell Disease

Common medications used in treatment of SCD include –

Medications for Sickle Cell Disease

  • Antibiotics – Children with SCD may start by taking antibiotic penicillin when they are about 2 months old & continue this course until they are at least 5 years of age. This will help them prevent infections like pneumonia which can often be life-threatening to infants & children with SCD. Antibiotics will also be helpful to fight certain infections for adults with SCD.
  • Pain Relieving Medications – Doctors often advise over-the-counter pain relieving medications & application of heat to affected areas so as to relieve pain during sickle crisis. Stronger pain medication prescriptions may also be needed at times during this period.
  • Hydroxyurea – Hydrea & Droxia will reduce frequency of painful crisis & need for blood transfusions when taken daily. Hydroxyurea works by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin, a type of hemoglobin found in newborns, which helps in preventing formation of sickle cells. Since Hydroxyurea increases risk of infections, there is concern that long term use may cause leukemia or tumors in some people. Hydroxyurea was however initially used just for adults with SCD. Studies concerning Hydroxyurea on children have shown that this drug may prevent serious complications associated with SCD, but long-term effects of this drug among children are yet unknown. Doctors can however help patients determine if use of Hydroxyurea may be beneficial or not in specific cases.
  • Assessing Risk of Stroke – Doctors can find out which SCD children have higher risk of stroke by using a special transcranial ultrasound machine. These tests can be applied on children who are as young as 2 years & those who are identified to have high risk of stroke can subsequently be treated with regular blood transfusions.
  • Vaccinations to Prevent Infections – Vaccinations during childhood are important in all children for preventing a number of diseases. However, these vaccinations are all the more important in children with SCD as infections are much severe. Doctors will doubly make sure that children with SCD receive all recommended childhood vaccinations. Pneumococcal vaccine & annual flu shot vaccinations are also most important for adult SCD patients.
  • Blood Transfusions – Red blood cells are removed from a supply of donated blood for red blood cell transfusions. These cells are then subsequently given intravenously to SCD patients. Blood transfusions are meant to increase number of red blood cells in circulation so as to help relieve anemia. Moreover, regular blood transfusions will effectively decrease risk of stroke among SCD children with high risk of stroke. However, as they contain iron, blood transfusions also carry some amount of risk. Regular blood transfusions will build up excessive amounts of iron in body & which can damage liver, heart & other organs. Therefore, SCD patients undergoing regular blood transfusions will require treatments to reduce iron levels. Oral medications like Deferasirox can help reduce excessive levels of iron.
  • Supplemental Oxygen – Breathing masks can help deliver supplemental oxygen to blood. Apart from making breathing easier, this treatment method will be extremely helpful for SCD patients facing sickle cell crisis or acute chest syndrome.
  • Stem Cell Transplant – Also known as Bone Marrow Transplant, this procedure involves replacing bone marrow affected by SCD with healthy bone marrow from donors. Due to a number of associated risks, stem cell transplant if only recommended for people having significant problems & symptoms from SCD. Diseased bone marrow in SCD patients is first depleted with Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy when a suitable donor is found. Healthy stem cells from a donor are then filtered from blood. These healthy stem cells are then intravenously injected into bloodstream of SCD patients where they migrate to bone marrow cavities & start generating newer blood cells. This procedure however requires extended hospital stays. SCD patients will also receive drugs so as to help prevent rejection of donor stem cells after bone marrow transplant. This is to overcome the risk of rejection which can lead to life-threatening complications. Moreover, not everyone can find a suitable donor or be a good candidate for stem cell transplantation.

Treating SCD Complications

Most complications relating to SCD are treated as they occur. Treating SCD complications may include pain relieving medications, blood transfusions, vitamins, antibiotics & other medications including possibility of surgery to correct vision problems or removal of damaged spleen.

Experimental Treatments for Sickle Cell Disease

Newer treatments for SCD under research include the following.

  • Gene Therapy – Researchers are exploring if inserting normal gene into bone marrow of SCD patients will result in normal production of hemoglobin since sickle cell anemia is caused by defective gene. Another possibility being explored is turning off defective gene while reactivating another gene responsible for fetal hemoglobin production. These potential gene therapy treatments are however still a long way from benefitting people with SCD.
  • Nitric Oxide – SCD patients have lower levels of nitric oxide in blood. Nitric oxide gas helps in keeping blood vessels open while reducing stickiness of red blood cells. Therefore, treatment with nitric oxide may eventually prevent clumping together of sickle cells. However, studies with nitric oxide have generally provided mixed results so far.
  • Drugs to Boost Fetal Hemoglobin – Various drugs are under study so as to devise boosting ways of fetal hemoglobin production. Fetal hemoglobin is a type of hemoglobin which prevents formation of sickle cells.
  • Statins – Normally used to lower cholesterol, statins may also be helpful in reducing inflammation. Statins may therefore also help blood flow better through blood vessels in SCD patients.

Sickle Cell Disease Risk Factors

Risk of inheriting SCD simply comes down to genetics. Both parents must however essentially carry sickle cell gene for babies to be born with SCD. Sickle cell gene is more common among families coming from South & Central America, Caribbean Islands, Saudi Arabia, India, Africa & Mediterranean countries. It is mostly the black community which is affected by SCD in United States.

Sickle Cell Disease Complications

There are a host of complications which SCD can lead to.

  • Acute Chest Syndrome – This is a life-threatening complication of SCD causing fever, chest pain & difficulty in breathing. Acute chest syndrome is often caused by lung infection or blocking of blood vessels in lungs by sickle cells. This condition may at times also require emergency medical treatment using antibiotics.
  • Stroke – Sickle cells blocking blood flow to areas of brain can result in strokes. Common signs of stroke include weakness, seizures, sudden difficulty in speech, numbness or weakness in arms & legs and/or loss of consciousness. Especially when babies or children display any of these signs or symptoms, it would be sensible to seek immediate medical treatment. Strokes can also be fatal.
  • Organ Damage – Sickle cells can block flowing of blood through blood vessels & thereby deprive organs from receiving essential blood & oxygen. As it is, blood is also chronically low on oxygen in SCD patients. Chronic deprivation of oxygen in blood can invariably damage nerves & organs in the body including spleen, liver & kidneys. Organ damage also can quite often be fatal in people with SCD.
  • Pulmonary Hypertension – SCD patients can also develop pulmonary hypertension or high blood pressure in lungs. This complication is however usually found to affect adults rather than children. Fatigue & shortness of breath are common symptoms involving this condition & can at times also be fatal.
  • Blindness – Tiny blood vessels supplying blood to eyes can also get blocked by sickle cells. Over a period of time, this can also damage portions of eye like retina which process visual images & eventually lead to blindness.
  • Skin Ulcers – SCD can cause ulcers or open sores on legs.
  • Gallstones – Breakdown of red blood cells in the process produce a substance called bilirubin; high levels of bilirubin in body will lead to developing gallstones.
  • Priapism – Men SCD patients may at times experience painful & long-lasting erections which is a condition called priapism. This is because sickle cells can also block blood vessels located in the penis. Priapism can also damage penis & subsequently lead to impotence.

Coping & Support for Sickle Cell Disease

People with SCD & close relatives of patients in the family may often need help so as to cope up with stress generated by this lifelong disease. These are some tips which are worth trying.

  • Finding Someone to Talk – Sickle cell clinics & treatment centers will provide information & counseling for patients & close relatives. Check with the doctor & supporting staff about support groups for families in the area. Talking to others facing similar challenges can be very helpful. Family, friends & prayers can also provide effective support.
  • Exploring Ways to Cope with Pain – Consult the doctor to find ways so as to control pain. Although pain medications help, they cannot at times take away all pain. Different working techniques for different people like hot baths, heating pads, physical therapy or massage can be helpful.
  • Learning about SCD to Make Informed Decisions – Parents of children with SCD will need to learn as much as they can so as to make informed choices about effective care. It would be therefore ideal to ask as many questions during appointment sessions & ask the health care team to recommend other sources for further learning.

Sickle Cell Disease Preventive Measures

Parents carrying sickle cell traits may wish to seek genetic counseling prior to conceiving. Genetic counselors can help them understand risks involving children born with SCD. Counselors can also explain preventive measures & reproductive options available including possible treatments.

Sickle Cell Disease Treatment in India

India is a leading global healthcare tourism destination providing a wide spectrum of affordable medical treatment options & surgical interventions for sickle cell disease including stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. IndianMedTrip is your one-stop online shop offering the most ideal healthcare solutions for international patients, which are high in quality but low in cost. Associated with the top doctors & best accredited hospitals in the country, IndianMedTrip consultants will assist from the first telephonic call to obtaining medical visas, warm reception, convenient travel & comfortable accommodation to scheduled treatment without any waiting, recuperation vacation, follow-up & successful farewell.

You can send your queries at: help@indianmedtrip.com & https://indianmedtrip.com/contact-us/
Call or WhatsApp: +91-8600855554

Source: https://indianmedtrip.com/articles/what-is-sickle-cell-disease/