Fundamentals Of Surgical Oncology

What is Surgical Oncology?

Surgical oncology is the specialized area of oncology that is used to manage and treat cancer.   Surgical OncologyThis branch of surgery refers to all the different types of surgeons that are engaged in treatment and management of all the different types of cancers and tumors. One of the main tasks of an oncology surgeon is to determine the relationship between removal of tumor and the risk associated by the initial tumor. The surgeon is more experienced in patient management through more conservative procedures than the conventional resection and excision methods of treatment. Continue Reading

Sleep Apnea Health Problems and Treatment Options

What is Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea is one of the most common and under diagnosed sleep disorders. Individual’s suffering from sleep apnea repeatedly stops and starts breathing during a night of sleep. Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder which occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep.  Due to repeatedly starting and stopping of the breathing the brain and the rest of the body does not get enough oxygen.

 Sleep Apnea

Symptoms of Sleep Apnea

  • Headaches in the morning.
  • Waking up frequently to urinate.
  • Pauses in breathing.
  • Gasping during sleep.
  • Mood swings or personality changes.
  • Feeling irritable.
  • Dry mouth or a sore throat after waking up.
  • Depressed.
  • Restless sleep.
  • Choking
  • Sleepiness.
  • Fatigue.
  • Insomnia.
  • Loud snoring.
  • Impotence.
  • Lack of every during the day.

Who are at the risk of sleep apnea?

  • Sleep apnea mostly occurs in the male.
  • Having a large neck size can also lead to sleep apnea.
  • Individuals with large tonsils, a large tongue, or a small jaw bone are at risk of developing sleep apnea.
  • Being overweight adds to the risk of sleep apnea.
  • Sleep apnea is generally found in individual over the age of 40.
  • Individuals with having a family history of sleep apnea.
  • Individuals who smoke.
  • Individuals with nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum, allergies, or sinus problems.

Types of sleep apnea

There are three types of sleep apnea:-

Obstructive sleep apnea: – This kind of sleep apnea is more common. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by a blockage of the airway. This blockage is generally caused when the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses during sleep. While sleeping a person’s throat muscles relax which allows the tongue and the fatty tissues of the throat to fall back into the airways and block airflow. During sleep apnea, the air is restricted from moving beyond the obstruction which results in a reduction of blood flow to the brain which in turn signals the brain to partially awaken from sleep and signal the body for its needs to breathe.

Central Sleep Apnea: – Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain does not send proper signals to the muscles that control the breathing. This sleep apnea is much less common that obstructive sleep apnea.

Complex Sleep Apnea:–Complex sleep apnea occurs when someone has both the obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea.

Treatment for sleep apnea

For milder cases of sleep apnea, the doctors may recommend lifestyle changes, such as to weight loss advice to quit smoking. In Case if the patient does not get relief from the lifestyle changes then the surgeon may recommend the following:-



Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP):– Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and reliable method to treat sleep apnea. In this therapy, the machine is used to deliver the air pressure through a masked which is placed over the nose of the patient while sleeping.

Other airway pressure devices: – Airway pressure devices automatically adjust the pressure while the patient is sleeping. Units which supply bi-level positive airway pressure are also used to provide the patient with relief from sleep apnea. These provide more pressure to the patient when they inhale and less when they exhale.

Expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP):–These are small, single devices which are placed over each of the nostrils before the patient goes to sleep. The device allows the air to move freely in. when the patient exhales the air must go through small holes in the valve of the device. This increases pressure in the airway and keeps it open. The device used to the expiratory positive airway pressure Helps in reducing snoring and daytime sleepiness in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea.


Surgery is often recommended to patients when all other treatments have failed. The surgery is performed with a goal to enlarge the airway through the patient’s nose or throat that may be vibrating and causing the patient to snore or locking the upper air passages causing sleep apnea.

Tissue removal: – While performing the procedure the surgeons removes tissue from the rear of the patient’s mouth and top of the throat. The patient’s tonsils and adenoids are also removed. This surgery is successful in stopping throat structures from vibrating and causing snoring.

Jaw repositioning: – In this procedure the patient’s jaw is moved forward from the remainder of the face bones. This enlarges the space behind the tongue and soft palate, making obstruction less likely.

Implants: – Plastic rods are surgically implanted into the soft palate of the patient.

Creating a new air passageway: – The patient’s may need this form of surgery if other treatments have failed and the patient has a severe, life-threatening sleep apnea. In this procedure, the surgeon makes an opening in the patient’s neck and inserts a metal or plastic tube through which the patient’s breathe.

Following are some other surgeries which are used to treat sleep apnea:-

  • Weight-loss surgery.
  • Nasal surgery to remove polyps.
  • Straightening a crooked partition between the patient’s nostrils.
  • Surgery to remove enlarged tonsils or adenoids.

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Risk Factors and Prevention of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a dreadful disease that arises due to formation of unusual and harmful cells in bladder and surrounding area. These cells multiply uncontrollably and begin to deteriorate immune system of an individual. Persistent fatigue, sudden loss of weight, burning sensation during urination, and blood clots in urine are the major warning signs of bladder cancer. Patients who are experiencing such symptoms must visit an experienced oncologist for an apt diagnosis. Any kind of negligence may lead to life-threatening problems in future.

 Risk Factors and Prevention of Bladder Cancer

Major Risk Factors Associated with Bladder Cancer

Root cause of bladder cancer is still a topic of research. However, there are certain risk factors that may double up the chances of occurrence of this disease in an individual’s body. The following points describe some major risk factors associated with cancer of bladder.

Smoking – It has been scientifically proven that chain smokers are considerably at a greater risk of developing bladder cancer.

Dehydration – Dehydration is often taken lightly by most people. But it is a fact that who do not drink sufficient amount of water are more prone to bladder cancer as compared to others.

Chemical Exposure – Exposure to chemicals like arsenic may prove dangerous over a period of time. It can significantly harm an individual’s body and result in cancer of bladder.

Chronic Urinary Infections – Proper treatment of urinary infections is extremely crucial because people who are suffering from chronic urinary infections are the main targets of bladder cancer.

Family History of Disease – Family history of bladder cancer raises the possibility of an individual to develop it in future.

How to Prevent Bladder Cancer?

Fortunately, bladder cancer is a highly preventable disease. People can easily prevent this disease by making the following changes in their lifestyle.

Fresh Fruits and Veggies – People should avoid processed food and increase the intake of fruits and vegetables in their daily course. It will improve their health and reduce the chances of any type of cancer.

Quit Smoking – Quitting smoking can work wonders for an individual. It can boost good health as well as reduce the possibility of bladder cancer. Quitting this habit all of a sudden may not be possible for everyone. However, one may take medical help to quit this destructive habit.

Active Lifestyle – A sedentary lifestyle may give rise to various health complications including bladder cancer. Therefore, everyone should maintain an active lifestyle in order to boost immunity and minimize the occurrence of bladder cancer.

Regular Health Evaluation – Regular health evaluation is necessary to keep a tab on overall health. It may help in early diagnosis of bladder cancer and increase the chances of successful cancer treatment.

Why Should You Undergo Cancer Treatment in India?

India has a large network of multispeciality health care centers that are fully-furnished with high-end instruments and state-of-the-art technology. Medical professionals practicing in these hospitals are renowned for handling complex cases of cancer and providing positive results. In addition to this, cancer treatment cost in India is also very affordable as compared to developed nations such as Canada and United Kingdom. Medical tourism in India is indeed the best choice for international patients seeking cost-effective as well as high-quality cancer treatments in a hassle-free manner.

You can send your queries at:
Call or WhatsApp: +91-8600855554

Importance of Oral & Dental Hygiene

Keeping mouth, teeth & gums healthy is a worthy goal in itself. Good oral & dental hygiene can effectively help prevent tooth decay, bad breath & gum disease. Healthy mouth helps ward off a variety of medical disorders; researchers are no wonder discovering newer reasons to everyday brush & floss. Unhealthy mouths with gum disease are found to increase risk of serious health problems like preterm labor, stroke, heart attack & poorly controlled diabetes. Relationship between oral health & overall health give enough good reasons to take care of mouth. Therefore, in order to make investment in overall good health for now & in future, resolve to practice good oral hygiene everyday in our life.

 Dental Hygiene Continue Reading

Treatment for Vasculitis: Causes, Signs & Symptoms

Vasculitis, which is also known as Angiitis & Arteritis is basically an inflammation of blood vessels. This is normally caused due to changes in walls inside blood vessels including narrowing, weakening, thickening & scarring issues. These changes subsequently restrict flow of blood & result in damage to tissues & organs. Although there are many varieties of vasculitis, good news is that most of these are rare. Quite often, vasculitis may just affect a single organ like skin, or it may involve several in other cases. Vasculitis conditions may either be acute (short term) or chronic (long lasting). Though some types of vasculitis are more common among certain groups of people, they can however affect anyone. Patients are often found to improve without any treatment, but which also depends upon the type of vasculitis. Certain cases of vasculitis however require medications in order to control inflammation & so as to prevent flare-ups.


Signs & Symptoms of Vasculitis

Signs & symptoms of vasculitis greatly vary & most often are related to decreased flow of bloodthroughout the body.

General signs & symptoms of vasculitis include the following.

  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Weight Loss
  • Rashes
  • Night Sweats
  • General Aches & Pains
  • Loss of Pulse in Limbs
  • Nerve Problems like Weakness or Numbness

Signs & Symptoms of Specific Types of Vasculitis

These are specifically related to other types of vasculitis. Symptoms can often develop early & rapidly or in some cases in later stages of this disease.

Behcet’s Syndrome – This condition is most often caused by inflammation of veins & arteries. Moreover, it generally appears between 20 – 30 years of age. Common signs & symptoms of Behcet’s syndrome include eye inflammation, genital & mouth ulcers along with acne-like incisions on skin.

Buerger’s Disease – This condition is caused by inflammation & by blood clots in blood vessels of hands & feet. It can eventually cause pain in feet, legs, hands & arms, & ulcers on toes & fingers. Moreover, this disease is linked to smoking cigarettes. This condition is also known as thromboangiitis obliterans.

Cryoglobulinemia – This condition is found to result from abnormal proteins found in blood. Most often this is associated with hepatitis C infections. Cryoglobulinemia signs & symptoms include weakness, joint pain, rashes 7 tingling or numbness.

Churg-Strauss Syndrome or Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis – This is a very rare condition which mainly affects lungs, kidneys & nerves in limbs. Symptoms however greatly vary & include sinus changes, nerve pain & asthma.

Giant Cell Arteritis – This condition is basically an inflammation of arteries in head, especially around the temples of patients. It is usually found to occur among people who are above 50 years of age. Signs & symptoms of giant cell arteritis include jaw pain, scalp tenderness, headaches, double or blurred vision which can even cause blindness. Giant cell arteritis is also known as Temporal Arteritis. It is linked to polymyalgia rheumatica which can also cause pain in muscles of thighs, hips, shoulders & neck.

Wegener’s Granulomatosis or Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis – This causes inflammation of blood vessels in lungs, throat, sinuses, nose & kidneys. Signs & symptoms of this condition include nose bleeds, sinus infections & nasal stuffiness. Affected tissues generally develop lumps known as granulomas. In case lungs are affected patients may also cough up blood. Kidneys are also most often affected, but most people do not display any noticeable symptoms until damage is in advanced stages.

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura – Inflammation of capillaries or small blood vessels of kidneys, bowels, joints & skin are expected in this condition. Signs & symptoms of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura include joint pain, blood in urine, abdominal pain & a rash on lower legs or buttocks. Moreover, this condition usually affects children but can also occur in people of any age.

Hypersensitivity Vasculitis – Primary sign of this condition is appearance of a red spot on skin which is usually on lower legs. Hypersensitivity vasculitis can also be triggered by infection or as a result of an adverse reaction to certain medications.

Kawasaki Disease – This condition is most often found to affect children who are younger than 5 years of age. Signs & symptoms of Kawasaki Disease include rash, eye inflammation & fever. This condition is also known as Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome.

Microscopic Polyangiitis – This type of vasculitis usually affects small blood vessels like those in lungs & kidneys. Patients in this condition may develop a rash & pain in abdomen. In case lungs are affected, patients are also likely to cough up blood as well.

Polyarteritis Nodosa – This type of vasculitis generally affects the nerves, digestive tract, kidneys & skin. Most often, this is associated with hepatitis B infections. Signs & symptoms of polyarteritis nodosa include a rash, high blood pressure, abdominal pain, muscle & joint pain, & kidney problems.

Takayasy’s Arteritis – This condition of vasculitis affects large arteries within the body including the aorta. Typically occurring among young women, Takayasu’s Arteritis signs & symptoms include headaches, high blood pressure, loss of pulse, visual changes & feeling of coldness or numbness in limbs.

People should make an appointment with doctors in case they experience any worrying signs & symptoms. Some forms of vasculitis can quickly get worse therefore early diagnosis is an ideal option for patients to get effective treatment.

Causes for Developing Vasculitis

Exact causes of vasculitis are not yet fully understood. However, some forms of vasculitis are related to genetic makeup of patients while others generally result from immune system attacking blood vessel by mistake. Possible triggers for this reaction of immune system include the following.

  • Blood cancers
  • Infections like hepatitis B & hepatitis C
  • Immune system diseases like scleroderma, lupus & rheumatoid arthritis
  • Reactions to certain drugs & medications

Blood vessels which are affected by vasculitis may either bleed or become inflamed. Inflammation may subsequently cause layers of blood vessel walls to thicken & which in turn will narrow the passage of blood vessels. This will eventually result in reducing the amount of blood flow & therefore oxygen & vital nutrients which are necessary to reach body tissues & organs for proper functioning.

Preparing for Initial Appointment

People experiencing worrying signs or symptoms must fix an appointment with the concerned doctors. If the primary doctor suspects that the patient is having vasculitis, s/he may refer the patient to a rheumatologist who is specializing in joint & muscle problems. Vasculitis patients may effectively benefit from their experience in dealing with this condition. A multidisciplinary approach may also be helpful for people in this condition. The type of specialist which vasculitis patients should seek will depend upon the type & severity of their condition.

Specialists treating vasculitis problems include the following.

  • Rheumatologists – joints & connective tissue doctors
  • Neurologists – nervous system & brain doctors
  • Ophthalmologists – eye doctors
  • Cardiologists – heart doctors
  • Nephrologists – kidney doctors
  • Pulmonologists – lung doctors
  • Dermatologists – skin doctors
  • Urologists – urinary & urogenital doctors
  • Doctors treating infectious diseases

Since appointments with specialist doctors can be brief & there is plenty of ground to cover in this short period of time, it would be a sensible idea that patients stay well prepared & include the following steps.

  • Be Aware of Pre-Appointment Restrictions – Patients should check out if they need to do anything in advance of the initial appointment, like restricting their diet.
  • List All Symptoms they are Experiencing – This list should include all symptoms including any which may seem unrelated to vasculitis for which this appointment is scheduled.
  • List Personal Medical Information – This should include information about recent health problems and/or major stresses which the patient is having. The list should also include details of any medications they are consuming, including vitamins & supplements.
  • Take Along a Family Member or Friend for Initial Appointment – Someone accompanying the patient will be able to help remember all that was discussed between the doctor & patient during the initial appointment.
  • Make a List of Questions to Ask Doctors – This will help the patient find out all that he wants to know about the disease & treatment. Without this list he may forget some questions & be unable to recall during initial appointment with the specialist doctor.

Common List of Questions which Vasculitis Patients Can Ask Specialist Doctors

  • Which type of vasculitis am I having?
  • What is the cause of my vasculitis problem?
  • Do I need to undergo more tests?
  • Is my vasculitis problem acute or chronic?
  • Will my vasculitis problem solve without any treatment?
  • How serious is my vasculitis condition?
  • Has vasculitis seriously damaged any part of my body?
  • Is my vasculitis problem curable?
  • What treatment options do I have for my vasculitis condition?
  • Can you let me know the risks & benefits of treatments you are suggesting?
  • Which one treatment do you feel is most suitable for my vasculitis condition?
  • How long will my vasculitis treatment last?
  • Apart from vasculitis, I am having another medical condition. So how best can I manage these conditions together?
  • Do I need to see another specialist?
  • Can you provide me brochures or some other printed material on my vasculitis condition?
  • Which websites do you recommend I refer to?

Common Questions which Doctors Ask Vasculitis Patients

  • When did you first begin to experience these vasculitis symptoms?
  • Have these vasculitis symptoms been occasional or continuous?
  • How severe are these vasculitis symptoms?
  • What is it, if anything, that seems to improve vasculitis symptoms?
  • What is it, if anything, which appears to worsen vasculitis symptoms?

Tests & Diagnosis for Vasculitis

Doctors are most likely to start by taking the patient’s medical history & performing a physical examination. They may also ask patients to undergo one or more of the following diagnostic tests & procedures.

  • Blood Tests – These tests allow looking for signs of inflammation like that of high levels of C-reactive protein. Complete blood cell count will tell whether patients are having enough quantity of red blood cells in circulation. Blood tests which look for certain antibodies like the anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic antibodies test may also be helpful in diagnosing vasculitis.
  • Urine Tests – These tests can effectively reveal whether patient’s urine is containing red blood cells or is having too much protein that signals a medical problem like vasculitis.
  • Imaging Tests – These are noninvasive imaging techniques which help determine which blood vessels & organs are affected by vasculitis. These imaging tests also help doctors monitor whether patients are positively responding to treatment. Normal imaging tests for vasculitis include PET – positron emission tomography, MRI – magnetic resonance imaging, CT – computerized tomography, ultrasound & X-rays.
  • Angiography – X-Rays of Blood Vessels – A flexible catheter resembling a thin straw is inserted into a large vein or artery during this procedure. A special dye is then injected as contrast medium into catheter after which X-rays are taken as the dye fills these veins or arteries. Outlines of blood vessels come visible on X-rays as a result.
  • Biopsy – This is basically a surgical procedure which involves removal of a small sample of tissue by surgeons from affected area of the patient’s body. Doctors will subsequently examine this tissue for any signs of vasculitis problems.

Treatment & Drugs for Vasculitis

Treatment for vasculitis will generally be focused on controlling inflammation with help of medications & resolving the underlying disease which triggered the problem. Patients may go through two treatment phases for vasculitis; Starting with stopping inflammation & subsequently preventing relapse which is known as maintenance therapy. Both these phases involve prescription of drugs. Which drugs to administer & the duration for which patients will need them will depend upon the type of vasculitis including the involvement of specific organs & the seriousness of the condition. Many cases of vasculitis report initial success with treatment & then subsequently experience flare-ups, while many others never experience vasculitis to completely go away & therefore will require ongoing treatment.

Medications Useful in Treating Vasculitis

  • Corticosteroids to Control Inflammation – Doctors may prescribe corticosteroid drugs like methylprednisolone (Medrol) or prednisone. These drugs can help control inflammation in affected blood vessels. Corticosteroids side effects can be severe, especially when they are taken for long periods of time. Possible side effects of these drugs include osteoporosis (bone thinning), diabetes & weight gain. In case corticosteroids are needed for long-term as maintenance therapy, they should be prescribed in the lowest dose possible.
  • Medications to Affect Immune System – Doctors may prescribe cytotoxic or immunosuppressant drugs when patients do not positively respond to corticosteroids. These drugs can effectively kill or decrease function of immune system cells which are causing inflammation. Main drugs in this category include cyclophosphamide, methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) & azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan). Possible side effects of cyclophosphamide include increased risk of infection, infertility & cancer. This is the reason why even though the drug is effective in controlling inflammation, cyclophosphamide is not always the first choice for treatment, especially when it is given as long-term therapy. Rituximab is a safe & effective option for treating many types of vasculitis. Rituximab (Rituxan) has also proved to be useful in maintenance therapy, unless the patient is having hepatitis B. Increased risk of reactivating hepatitis B is a side effect of rituximab.

Risks & Complications of Vasculitis

Complications resulting from vasculitis normally depend upon the type & severity of the condition. Sometimes they are also related to side effects of medications that were prescribed as treatment. Complications of vasculitis include some of the following.

  • Organ Damage – Some types of vasculitis which can be severe may cause damage to major organs in the body.
  • Aneurysms & Blood Clots – Blood clots which can form in blood vessels may result in obstructing blood flow. Although rare, vasculitis may cause blood vessel to weaken & bulge so as to form an aneyrysm. Patients will in such a scenario need surgery so as to remove the aneurysm.
  • Infections – These include severe & life-threatening conditions like pneumonia & sepsis (blood infection).
  • Blindness or Loss of Vision – This is a possibility resulting as a complication when giant cell arteritis is left without proper treatment.

Coping & Support for Vasculitis Patients

Coping with side effects of medication may be one of the greatest challenges of living with vasculitis condition. Vasculitis patients can consider the following suggestions which may prove to be extremely helpful.

  • Understanding this Medical Condition – Patients must learn everything they can about vasculitis including treatments. Knowing possible side effects of the drugs they are taking & conveying to doctors about changes in health will prove beneficial.
  • Follow the Treatment Plan – Vasculitis treatment plan will include visiting the doctor regularly & undergoing further test when needed & keeping tab on the blood pressure.
  • Choose Healthy Diet – Keeping up with a healthy diet can prevent potential problems which can result from medications given as treatment for vasculitis. These include diabetes, high blood pressure & thinning of bones. Therefore patients must choose a diet which emphasizes on vegetables & fresh fruits, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fish & lean meats. In case patients are on corticosteroid drugs they should check with the doctor if they also need to take vitamin D or calcium supplement.
  • Get Routine Vaccinations – Updating on vaccinations like for pneumonia & flu will help prevent problems arising from infections which can result as side effects of vasculitis medications given for treatment.
  • Exercise Regularly – Walking & regular aerobic exercises can help prevent diabeteshigh blood pressure & bone loss which are normally associated with taking corticosteroid drugs. This can also benefit the lungs & heart of patients. Additionally, several people find that these exercises are effective in improving mood & overall sense of well being. Patients who are not used to exercising may start out slowly & gradually build up momentum. Doctors can also help patients plan an exercise regimen which is right for them.
  • Maintain a Durable Support System – Maintaining a strong system for support which includes family & friends will help patients cope with this condition. Patients can also talk to them & with other people who are living with vasculitis problem. Healthcare team associated with the doctor can help connect vasculitis patients with such support groups.

Affordable Treatments for Vasculitis in India

India has emerged as a leading medical tourism destination over the past decade. With cost of healthcare rising in the western world beyond the reach of common man, people are seeking good quality but low cost medical procedure beyond borders to fit their budgets. India has a well established healthcare infrastructure managed by competent medical professionals. This has attracted people from all around the world to come to India so as to overcome their medical problems. IndianMedTrip is one of the most reputed global medical tourism companies based in South Asia providing a wide spectrum of affordable healthcare services including vascular surgery & treatment for vasculitis to international patients. Moreover, consultants at IndianMedTrip would also be delighted to combine an exotic recuperative holiday to go along with your healthcare treatment so as to make your journey a memorable experience.

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Monitoring Cancer Tumor May Sometimes Be Better Than Aggressive Treatment

Most often the type of cancer, age and compliance of the patient matter and tumors do not always require immediate treatment. However, not all cancer tumors are the same. Cancer data which is available reveals that small-sized breast cancer tumors which are slow-growing generally have an excellent outlook and may in fact never cause any serious complications or even require treatment within the life span of a patient.

Monitoring Cancer Tumor May Sometimes Be Better Than Aggressive Treatment

Fast-Growing Cancer Tumors May be Fatal

On the other side there are fast-growing cancer tumors which can be equally fatal and even become a problem before they are diagnosed. However, in many cases it is found that doctors over-diagnosed or sometimes over-treated older patients with slow-growing cancer tumors which were unlikely to be life-threatening. It is therefore important that patients as well as physicians be educated on indolent and slow-growing nature of some types of breast cancers. This will allow over-diagnosing and avoiding major harms resulting from overtreatments and the fear and anxiety which diagnosing of cancer will cause to the patient.

Monitoring Cancer is Sometimes the Best Treatment Option

While breast cancer can be a controversial subject, low-grade lymphoma is typically dealt by oncologists with the observation option unless it is harming the patient or shortening life-span because of cancer. There are many other scenarios where doctors suggest that monitoring cancer is an ideal option instead of chemotherapy and other extreme options. However, in many cases simply watching and waiting for a patient can be a difficult option to accept. Most patients refuse to accept watchful waiting, particularly when they are young and healthy individuals. Mortality rate resulting from prostate cancer is especially low in spite of the type of treatment, but surgical intervention and radiotherapy are associated with fewer cases of disease progression and metastases.

Cancer Patient’s Preference

While some cancer patients pursue more treatment than what is required, there are others who would prefer effective monitoring. The truth is there is more which is riding on the cancer patient than the doctor when considering active surveillance. Monitoring option for cancer is usually not accepted because of the human element. In several cases where monitoring would be ideal, it is the stress on the patient and the family which makes them settle for treatments. However, whenever monitoring is chosen as an option for cancer, surveillance schedule should be strict for up to 10 years of time. Moreover, age of the patient is an important factor. Like a person of 70 years with a slow-growing cancer tumor may eventually die of some other cause, while a younger person with the same problem may require invasive cancer treatments in order to stop progression of the disease.

Cancer Treatment in India is a Good Option

Medical tourism in India is an excellent option for international patients who are concerned about the rising cost of healthcare in their homeland. India features an extensive network of globally recognized doctors and internationally accredited hospital facilities which are equipped with the most modern technologies in order to provide successful outcomes which are at par with the best in the world. Moreover, cancer treatment in India when compared to cancer treatment costs in the developed Western countries is much less without compromising on the quality of treatment. In fact, cancer treatment cost in India is just a fraction of what a cancer patient may end up paying while undergoing treatment in other parts of the world.

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Understanding Chronic Kidney Disease in Detail

What is Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease (or chronic kidney failure) is a degenerative disease that causes the kidney to malfunction or to function at below normal levels. This causes the excess fluid and waste in the blood stream to rise to dangerous levels and result in a large variety of dangerous and often fatal complications.

Chronic Kidney Disease

The kidneys are responsible for filtering out the waste and excessive fluids from the blood stream which are excreted through the urine. In case the chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage the malfunctioning of the kidneys causes the fluids and waste in the blood stream to rise to dangerous levels.

The initial stages of chronic kidney disease may not show any noticeable symptoms and often goes unnoticed or may show minor and few signs. As the kidney’s functioning gets progressively impaired the signs and symptoms are seen to become more prominent and noticeable.

The main aim of the treatment of chronic kidney disease is to slow the progress of the kidney damage and then to control the underlying condition that might be causing it.

Prompt and immediate treatment is advised in case a person experiences the common signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease as prolonged ignorance can lead to end-stage kidney failure.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease?

The symptoms of chronic kidney disease are seen developing gradually over time as the damage to the kidney spreads.

These are the commonly seen signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Appetite loss
  • Weakness/fatigue
  • Sleeping problems
  • Changes in urination amount
  • Affected mental abilities
  • Muscle cramp/twitching
  • Hiccups
  • Feet/ankle swelling
  • Constant itching
  • Chest pain (due to fluid build-up around the heart’s lining)
  • Shortness of breath (due to fluid build-up in the lungs)
  • High blood pressure

What are the Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease arises as a result of another disorder or disease that affects the kidney’s functioning which causes the damage to the kidney to get worse with time.

These are the diseases and disorders that are known to result in chronic kidney disease:

  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Glomerulonephritis (inflammation in the tiny glomeruli in the kidney)
  • Interstitial nephritis (inflammation of tubules and surrounding structure in the kidney)
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Prolonged urinary tract obstruction
  • Recurrent renal (kidney) infection

What are the Risk Factors associated with Chronic Kidney Disease?

These are the several risk factors that are known to increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Family history of kidney disorders
  • Age (65 years and above)
  • Certain ethnicities (African-American, Native American and Asian American)

What are the Complications caused by Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease can affect the body in various different ways, such as:

  • Fluid retention – This can cause swelling in the arms and legs as well as high blood pressure and fluid in the lungs to accumulate.
  • Hyperkalemia – A sudden rise in the potassium levels in the blood stream can affect the heart’s ability to function normally and can also prove fatal.
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Bone fractures
  • Anemia
  • Impotence
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Central nervous system damage
  • Decreased immune system functions
  • Pericarditis
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Irreversible kidney damage

How is Chronic Kidney Disease diagnosed?

These are the commonly performed diagnostic tests to help determine if the person has chronic kidney disease:

  • Blood test – These tests help to check the functioning of the kidney in terms of the level of waste product in the blood stream.
  • Urine test – Analyzing a sample of your urine may help identify abnormalities which indicate towards chronic kidney disease and also help to identify the cause of it.
  • Imaging tests – Ultrasound tests are most effective in creating a clear image of the kidney’s internal and external structure using sound waves.
  • Biopsy – This involves removing a small piece of the damaged kidney for detailed pathological analysis. It helps to determine the cause of the chronic kidney disease.

How is Chronic Kidney Disease treated?

Some of the kidney diseases can be successfully treated depending on their causes. Often, chronic kidney disease does not have any cure.

Mostly, the treatment for kidney disease is aimed at controlling the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as to slow the progress of the disease any further.

Treating the Cause

The doctor will aim to control (or slow down) the progress of the kidney disease. There are several treatment options and the exact type will depend on the main cause for the development of the condition.

Treating the Complications

The chronic kidney disease is controlled in order to add comfort to the patient.

These are the common treatment methods for treating the complications arising out of chronic kidney disease:

Hypertension medications – The medications for controlling high blood pressure helps to lower the abnormal blood pressure as well as to preserve the kidney functions.

Cholesterol controlling medications – Statin medications are used to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. Higher cholesterol levels in the blood can lead to heat disease.

Anemia treatment – Medications such as hormone supplements for ‘erythropoietin’ with added iron are recommended to increase the production of red blood cells and relieve the fatigue and other signs being caused by anemia.

Anti-inflammatory medications – Fluid retention in the body due to chronic kidney disease leads to swelling in the arms and legs, including higher blood pressure. Diuretics can help to maintain the fluid levels at normal in the body.

Treating End-Stage Kidney Disease

In case the kidney damage is extensive and the complications are varied, the disease may reach end-stage kidney disease level.

These are the treatment options for this condition:

Dialysis – This is an artificial procedure to clear and remove waste and excessive fluids from the body using a machine. A hemodialysis machine helps to filter the blood to remove excess fluid and to sort out the waste products in the blood stream from the body. This is performed using the peritoneal treatment (requiring catheter in the abdomen)

Kidney Transplant – Kidney transplant is a major surgical procedure required for an organ transplant, in this case a donor kidney. The surgeon will use a healthy donor kidney to replace the damaged kidneys. This new donor kidney helps to restore the functions of the kidney in cleaning and filtering the waste from the body efficiently and effectively. This makes the need for dialysis redundant.

Chronic kidney diseases are dangerous and can lead to often fatal complications if left undiagnosed and untreated for a long time.

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